Gymnastics Glossary & Elements Named for U.S. Gymnasts
(from USA Gymnastics)

A stunt in which the gymnast turns completely over in the air without touching the apparatus with his or her hands.

A category of gymnastics that includes all of the events. The all-around champion of an event earns the highest total score from all events combined.

The height or degree of execution of a movement. In general, the higher the salto or the more breathtaking the movement, the better the amplitude and the score.

One of the various pieces of equipment used in gymnastics competitions.

Arch Position
The body is curved backwards.

Back-in, Full-out
A double salto with a full twist (the complete twist performed during the second salto).

Code of Points
The official FIG rulebook for judging gymnastics skills.

Pre-designed routines designating specific movements required of all gymnasts.

The structure of a gymnastics routine. Each individual movement or skill is a building block; the arrangement of the moves in the exercise is called the composition of the routine.

Points taken off a gymnast's score for errors. Most deductions are pre-determined, such as a 0.5 deduction for a fall from an apparatus or a 0.1 deduction for stepping out of bounds on the floor exercise.

To leave an apparatus at the end of a routine; usually done with a difficult twist or salto.

The performance of a routine. Form, style, and technique used to complete the skills constitute the level of execution of an exercise. Bent knees, poor toe point and an arched or loosely-held body position are all examples of poor execution.

The International Federation of Gymnastics is recognized by the International Olympic Committee and is responsible for the governance of the sport of gymnastics on the international level.

The range of motion through which a body part can move without feeling pain.

Also known as a flip-flop or back handspring. Take off on one or two feet, jump backwards onto hands and land on feet. This element is used in a majority of tumbling passes on the floor exercise. It's also used a great deal on the balance beam.

Full-in, Back-out
A double salto with a full twist (the complete twist performed during the first salto).

On high bar, a front giant into a one-and-one-half front salto over the bar to regrasp. First done by U.S. gymnast Mitch Gaylord.

A swing in which the body is fully extended and moving through a 360 degree rotation around the bar.

Half-in, Half-out
A double salto with a half twist on the first salto and a half twist on the second salto.

Springing off the hands by putting the weight on the arms and using a strong push from the shoulders; can be done either forward or backward; usually a linking movement.

Movement from a position below the equipment to a position above, usually on the uneven bars, parallel bars or high bar.

Layout position
A stretched body position, straight or slightly arched.

Olympic order
The international competition order that is decided by the FIG. Olympic order for women is vault, uneven bars, balance beam and floor exercise.
Men compete in the following order: floor exercise, pommel horse, still rings, vault, parallel bars and horizontal bar. Olympic order for rhythmic gymnasts is rope, hoop, ball, clubs and ribbon.

Personally-designed routines which show the gymnast to the best advantage.

Pike Position
Body bent forward more than 90 degrees at the hips while the legs are kept straight.

Changing direction or moving in a circular motion by twisting in the handstand position.

Leaving the bar to perform a move before re-grasping it.

A dynamic turning movement, with a push-off on one leg, while swinging the legs upward in a fast cartwheel motion into a 90 degree turn. The lead-off to a number of skills.

A combination of stunts displaying a full range of skills on one apparatus.

Flip or somersault, with the feet coming up over the head and the body rotating around the axis of the waist.

A combination requirement in a competitive routine on the pommel horse which combines cuts and undercuts. It begins in a stride support and ends in an opposite stride support.

Two or more positions or skills which are performed together creating a different skill or activity.

"Stick" landing
Slang term used for when a gymnast executes a landing with correct technique and no movement of the feet.

A position in which the knees and hips are bent and drawn into the chest; the body is folded at the waist.

Not to be confused with a salto, a twist occurs when the gymnast rotates around the body's longitudinal axis, defined by the spine.

The artistry, or the degree of rhythm and harmony, displayed while a movement is executed. In general, the more flowing and seamless a series of skills appears to be, the greater the virtuosity and the higher the score.

Yurchenko Vault
Round-off entry onto the board, flic-flac onto the horse and one of the following off the horse: layout, full twist, one-and-a-half twist or double twist.

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Elements Named For U.S. Gymnasts

For an element to be named after a gymnast, he or she must first submit the element to the FIG and then successfully perform the element in a FIG sanctioned international competition, such as the World Championships or Olympic Games.


Bhardwaj Salto (D) 4.506
Named after Mohini Bhardwaj. First performed in 2004.
From a hang on HB, facing LB - swing forward, salto backward stretched and flight with 1/1 turn (360o) between bars to clear support on LB.

Borden (C) 2.302
Named after Amanda Borden
BB - Straddle pike jump from side position with ½ or ¾ turn

Brause (C)
Named after Doris Fuchs Brause
UB - On LB facing away from HB, cast to salto roll forward to hang on HB

Chow (E) 6.504
Named after Amy Chow
UB - Stalder backward to handstand on HB with 1 ½ turn in handstand to mixed-L grip

Dawes (D) 4.403
Named after Dominique Dawes
UB - Giant with 1 ½ turn in handstand

Fontaine (D) 8.406
Named after Larissa Fontaine. First performed in 1994 Worlds.
UB - Back tuck with ½ twist into double front.

Garrison (Super E) 1.616
Named after Kelly Garrison
BB - Roundoff, tucked full mount

Garrison (C) 6.302
Named after Kelly Garrison
BB - Free shoulder roll forward to stand or tuck stand without hand support

Garrison (C) 7.306
Named after Kelly Garrison
BB - From extended tuck sit, Valdez swing over backward through horizontal plane with support on one arm.

Garrison (C) 1.314
Named after Kelly Garrison
FX - Cat leap forward with bent legs and 1 ½ turn

Henrich (C) 2.301
Named after Christy Henrich
BB - Split or stag-split leap or jump forward with ½ turn, landing alternately or on both legs; also cross split jump in side position with bending of rear leg backward upward.

Humphrey (D) 3.406
Named after Terin Humphrey. First performed in 2004.
FX - Split leap forward with leg change and ¼ turn to side split leap or straddle pike position.
Watch the performance

Johnson (A) 1.205
Named after Brandy Johnson

Maloney (D) 7.409
Named after Kristin Maloney. First performed in 1997 Worlds.
UB - Pike sole circle backward to handstand with 1/1 (360°) after handstand phase to mixed-L or L grip

Maloney (D) 7.410
Named after Kristin Maloney. First performed in 1997 Worlds.
UB - Inner front support on LB - pike sole circle backward through handstand with flight to hang on HB

McCool (D) 1.409
Named after Courtney McCool. First performed in 2004.
BB mount: Flyspring forward with flight before and after hand support on Beam, landing on both feet - approach at end of beam.

McNamara (D) 1.415
Named after Julianne McNamara. First performed in 1981.
UB - Mount by a jump to hang on HB, clear hip circle to handstand with 1/2 turn in handstand

Miller (D) 2.401
Named after Shannon Miller
UB - Cast, 1 1/2 turn after handstand to mixed-L grip

Okino (D) 8.402
Named after Betty Okino
UB - Clear hip underswing with 1/2 twist to layout back salto

Okino (E) 3.501
Named after Betty Okino. First performed on 1991 Worlds.
BB - Triple pirouette

Phelps (D) 3.407
Named after Jayce Phelps
V - Half-on, Half-off front layout

Phillips (D) 7.404
Named after Kristie Phillips. First performed in 1987 Worlds.
BB - Press to side handstand, front walkover to side stand on both legs

Ray (C) 6.305
Named after Elise Ray
UB - Facing inward, a stalder backward with release and counter movement forward in flight to hang on

Ray (D) 7.411
Named after Elise Ray
UB - Handstand on HB, pike sole circle backward backward counter straddle-reverse hecht over HB to hang.

Ray (Super E) 8.605
Named after Elise Ray
UB - Double layout dismount with two full twists.

Strug (C) 1.309
Named after Kerri Strug
FX - Tour jete with additional ½ turn to land on both legs

Talavera (C) 3.308
Named after Tracee Talavera
BB - One leg circle with flair

White (D) 6.403
Named after Morgan White.
UB - Stalder forward in L-grip to handstand with ½ turn in handstand.

White (C) 2.311
Named after Morgan White.
BB - Wolf jump from side position with ½ turn, take-off from both legs


Bhavsar (E)
Named after Raj Bhavsar
SR - Pull through momentary, front lever press to Maltese (Super E if straight body)

Bryan (C) I-28
Named after Casey Bryan
PH - Scissor ½ turn to handstand, ½ pirouette and straddle down

Daggett (C) I-23
Named after Tim Daggett
PH - Scissor backward with ½ counterturn

Gatson (D) I-59
Named after Jason Gatson.
PB - Swing backward with full turn hop to handstand

Gaylord (D) II-44
Named after Mitch Gaylord.
HB - Salto forward, tuck, pike or straddled over the bar

Gaylord (D) II-64
Named after Mitch Gaylord
HB - Gienger stretched over the bar

Hayden (D) V-49
Named after Daniel Hayden
HB - Double salto backward, stretched, with full twist over the bar

O'Neill (E) I-25
Named after Paul O-Neill
SR - Stretched double feige backward to hang

Roethlisberger (D) IV-40
Named after John Roethlisberger
PH - Russian underswing with 1 ½ turn and three travels. (Also named after Wu Guonian in the Code.)

Roethlisberger (D) V-19
Named after John Roethlisberger
PB - High wende and salto backward tucked or piked

Roth (C) IV-23
Named after Bill Roth.
PH - From cross support, rearways, reverse Stockli, wendeswing forward to reverse Stockli to cross support forward on other end, without touching pommels

Thomas (D) V-14
Named after Kurt Thomas.
FX - Jump backward with 1 ½ salto, tucked or piked, and 1 ½ twist

Thomas (E) V-15
Named after Kurt Thomas
FX - Thomas stretched

Thomas (B)
Named after Kurt Thomas.
PH - All flairs

Wells (D) III-4
Named after Trent Wells
PB - Giant swing backward with in-location forward

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